Using the occ Command

Nextcloud’s occ command (origins from “ownCloud Console”) is Nextcloud’s command-line interface. You can perform many common server operations with occ, such as installing and upgrading Nextcloud, manage users, encryption, passwords, LDAP setting, and more.

occ is in the nextcloud/ directory; for example /var/www/nextcloud on Ubuntu Linux. occ is a PHP script. You must run it as your HTTP user to ensure that the correct permissions are maintained on your Nextcloud files and directories.

Run occ As Your HTTP User

The HTTP user is different on the various Linux distributions. See Setting Strong Directory Permissions to learn how to find your HTTP user.

  • The HTTP user and group in Debian/Ubuntu is www-data.
  • The HTTP user and group in Fedora/CentOS is apache.
  • The HTTP user and group in Arch Linux is http.
  • The HTTP user in openSUSE is wwwrun, and the HTTP group is www.

If your HTTP server is configured to use a different PHP version than the default (/usr/bin/php), occ should be run with the same version. For example, in CentOS 6.5 with SCL-PHP54 installed, the command looks like this:

sudo -u apache /opt/rh/php54/root/usr/bin/php /var/www/html/nextcloud/occ

Running occ with no options lists all commands and options, like this example on Ubuntu:

sudo -u www-data php occ
Nextcloud version 9.0.0

Usage:
 command [options] [arguments]

Options:
 -h, --help            Display this help message
 -q, --quiet           Do not output any message
 -V, --version         Display this application version
     --ansi            Force ANSI output
     --no-ansi         Disable ANSI output
 -n, --no-interaction  Do not ask any interactive question
     --no-warnings     Skip global warnings, show command output only
 -v|vv|vvv, --verbose  Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal output,
                       2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug

Available commands:
 check                 check dependencies of the server
                       environment
 help                  Displays help for a command
 list                  Lists commands
 status                show some status information
 upgrade               run upgrade routines after installation of
                       a new release. The release has to be
                       installed before.

This is the same as sudo -u www-data php occ list.

Run it with the -h option for syntax help:

sudo -u www-data php occ -h

Display your Nextcloud version:

sudo -u www-data php occ -V
  Nextcloud version 9.0.0

Query your Nextcloud server status:

sudo -u www-data php occ status
  - installed: true
  - version: 9.0.0.19
  - versionstring: 9.0.0
  - edition:

occ has options, commands, and arguments. Options and arguments are optional, while commands are required. The syntax is:

occ [options] command [arguments]

Get detailed information on individual commands with the help command, like this example for the maintenance:mode command:

sudo -u www-data php occ help maintenance:mode
Usage:
 maintenance:mode [options]

Options:
     --on              enable maintenance mode
     --off             disable maintenance mode
 -h, --help            Display this help message
 -q, --quiet           Do not output any message
 -V, --version         Display this application version
     --ansi            Force ANSI output
     --no-ansi         Disable ANSI output
 -n, --no-interaction  Do not ask any interactive question
     --no-warnings     Skip global warnings, show command output only
 -v|vv|vvv, --verbose  Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal output,
                       2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug

The status command from above has an option to define the output format. The default is plain text, but it can also be json:

sudo -u www-data php occ status --output=json
{"installed":true,"version":"9.0.0.19","versionstring":"9.0.0","edition":""}

or json_pretty:

sudo -u www-data php occ status --output=json_pretty
{
   "installed": true,
   "version": "9.0.0.19",
   "versionstring": "9.0.0",
   "edition": ""
}

This output option is available on all list and list-like commands: status, check, app:list, config:list, encryption:status and encryption:list-modules

Apps Commands

The app commands list, enable, and disable apps:

app
 app:check-code   check code to be compliant
 app:disable      disable an app
 app:enable       enable an app
 app:getpath      Get an absolute path to the app directory
 app:list         List all available apps

List all of your installed apps, and show whether they are enabled or disabled:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:list

Enable an app, for example the External Storage Support app:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:enable files_external
files_external enabled

Disable an app:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:disable files_external
files_external disabled

app:check-code has multiple checks: it checks if an app uses Nextcloud’s public API (OCP) or private API (OC_), and it also checks for deprecated methods and the validity of the info.xml file. By default all checks are enabled. The Activity app is an example of a correctly-formatted app:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:check-code notifications
App is compliant - awesome job!

If your app has issues, you’ll see output like this:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:check-code foo_app
Analysing /var/www/nextcloud/apps/files/foo_app.php
4 errors
   line   45: OCP\Response - Static method of deprecated class must not be
   called
   line   46: OCP\Response - Static method of deprecated class must not be
   called
   line   47: OCP\Response - Static method of deprecated class must not be
   called
   line   49: OC_Util - Static method of private class must not be called

You can get the full filepath to an app:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:getpath notifications
/var/www/nextcloud/apps/notifications

Background Jobs Selector

Use the background command to select which scheduler you want to use for controlling background jobs, Ajax, Webcron, or Cron. This is the same as using the Cron section on your Nextcloud Admin page:

background
 background:ajax       Use ajax to run background jobs
 background:cron       Use cron to run background jobs
 background:webcron    Use webcron to run background jobs

This example selects Ajax:

sudo -u www-data php occ background:ajax
  Set mode for background jobs to 'ajax'

The other two commands are:

  • background:cron
  • background:webcron

See Defining Background Jobs to learn more.

Config Commands

The config commands are used to configure the Nextcloud server:

config
 config:app:delete      Delete an app config value
 config:app:get         Get an app config value
 config:app:set         Set an app config value
 config:import          Import a list of configs
 config:list            List all configs
 config:system:delete   Delete a system config value
 config:system:get      Get a system config value
 config:system:set      Set a system config value

You can list all configuration values with one command:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:list

By default, passwords and other sensitive data are omitted from the report, so the output can be posted publicly (e.g. as part of a bug report). In order to generate a full backport of all configuration values the --private flag needs to be set:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:list --private

The exported content can also be imported again to allow the fast setup of similar instances. The import command will only add or update values. Values that exist in the current configuration, but not in the one that is being imported are left untouched:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:import filename.json

It is also possible to import remote files, by piping the input:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:import < local-backup.json

Note

While it is possible to update/set/delete the versions and installation statuses of apps and Nextcloud itself, it is not recommended to do this directly. Use the occ app:enable, occ app:disable and occ update commands instead.

Getting a Single Configuration Value

These commands get the value of a single app or system configuration:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:get version
9.0.0.19

sudo -u www-data php occ config:app:get activity installed_version
2.2.1

Setting a Single Configuration Value

These commands set the value of a single app or system configuration:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:set logtimezone
--value="Europe/Berlin"
System config value logtimezone set to Europe/Berlin

sudo -u www-data php occ config:app:set files_sharing
incoming_server2server_share_enabled --value="yes" --type=boolean
Config value incoming_server2server_share_enabled for app files_sharing set to yes

The config:system:set command creates the value, if it does not already exist. To update an existing value, set --update-only:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:set doesnotexist --value="true"
--type=boolean --update-only
Value not updated, as it has not been set before.

Note that in order to write a Boolean, float, or integer value to the configuration file, you need to specify the type on your command. This applies only to the config:system:set command. The following values are known:

  • boolean
  • integer
  • float
  • string (default)

When you want to e.g. disable the maintenance mode run the following command:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:set maintenance --value=false
--type=boolean
Nextcloud is in maintenance mode - no app have been loaded
System config value maintenance set to boolean false

Setting an array Configuration Value

Some configurations (e.g. the trusted domain setting) are an array of data. In order to set (and also get) the value of one key, you can specify multiple config names separated by spaces:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:get trusted_domains
localhost
nextcloud.local
sample.tld

To replace sample.tld with example.com trusted_domains => 2 needs to be set:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:set trusted_domains 2
--value=example.com
System config value trusted_domains => 2 set to string example.com

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:get trusted_domains
localhost
nextcloud.local
example.com

Deleting a Single Configuration Value

These commands delete the configuration of an app or system configuration:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:delete maintenance:mode
System config value maintenance:mode deleted

sudo -u www-data php occ config:app:delete appname provisioning_api
Config value provisioning_api of app appname deleted

The delete command will by default not complain if the configuration was not set before. If you want to be notified in that case, set the --error-if-not-exists flag:

sudo -u www-data php occ config:system:delete doesnotexist
--error-if-not-exists
Config provisioning_api of app appname could not be deleted because it did not
exist

Dav Commands

A set of commands to create addressbooks, calendars, and to migrate addressbooks from 8.2 when you upgrade to 9.0:

dav
 dav:create-addressbook        Create a dav addressbook
 dav:create-calendar           Create a dav calendar
 dav:migrate-addressbooks      Migrate addressbooks from the contacts
                               app to core
 dav:migrate-calendars         Migrate calendars from the calendar app to
                               core
 dav:sync-birthday-calendar    Synchronizes the birthday calendar
 dav:sync-system-addressbook   Synchronizes users to the system
                               addressbook

The syntax for dav:create-addressbook and dav:create-calendar is dav:create-addressbook [user] [name]. This example creates the addressbook mollybook for the user molly:

sudo -u www-data php occ dav:create-addressbook molly mollybook

This example creates a new calendar for molly:

sudo -u www-data php occ dav:create-calendar molly mollycal

Molly will immediately see these on her Calendar and Contacts pages.

In 9.0, the CalDAV server has been integrated into core. Your existing calendars and contacts should migrate automatically when you upgrade. If something goes wrong you can try a manual migration. First delete any partially-migrated calendars or addressbooks. Then run this command to migrate user’s contacts:

sudo -u www-data php occ dav:migrate-addressbooks [user]

Run this command to migrate calendars:

sudo -u www-data php occ dav:migrate-calendars [user]

See ownCloud 9.0 - calendar migration analysis for help with troubleshooting and reporting problems.

dav:sync-birthday-calendar adds all birthdays to your calendar from addressbooks shared with you. This example syncs to your calendar from user bernie:

sudo -u www-data php occ dav:sync-birthday-calendar bernie

dav:sync-system-addressbook synchronizes all users to the system addressbook:

sudo -u www-data php occ dav:sync-system-addressbook

Added in 9.0.

Database Conversion

The SQLite database is good for testing, and for Nextcloud servers with small single-user workloads that do not use sync clients, but production servers with multiple users should use MariaDB, MySQL, or PostgreSQL. You can use occ to convert from SQLite to one of these other databases.

db
 db:convert-type           Convert the Nextcloud database to the newly
                           configured one
 db:generate-change-script generates the change script from the current
                           connected db to db_structure.xml

You need:

  • Your desired database and its PHP connector installed.
  • The login and password of a database admin user.
  • The database port number, if it is a non-standard port.

This is example converts SQLite to MySQL/MariaDB:

sudo -u www-data php occ db:convert-type mysql oc_dbuser 127.0.0.1
oc_database

For a more detailed explanation see Converting Database Type

Encryption

occ includes a complete set of commands for managing encryption:

encryption
 encryption:change-key-storage-root   Change key storage root
 encryption:decrypt-all               Disable server-side encryption and
                                      decrypt all files
 encryption:disable                   Disable encryption
 encryption:enable                    Enable encryption
 encryption:enable-master-key         Enable the master key. Only available
                                      for fresh installations with no existing
                                      encrypted data! There is also no way to
                                      disable it again.
 encryption:encrypt-all               Encrypt all files for all users
 encryption:list-modules              List all available encryption modules
 encryption:migrate                   initial migration to encryption 2.0
 encryption:set-default-module        Set the encryption default module
 encryption:show-key-storage-root     Show current key storage root
 encryption:status                    Lists the current status of encryption

encryption:status shows whether you have active encryption, and your default encryption module. To enable encryption you must first enable the Encryption app, and then run encryption:enable:

sudo -u www-data php occ app:enable encryption
sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:enable
sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:status
 - enabled: true
 - defaultModule: OC_DEFAULT_MODULE

encryption:change-key-storage-root is for moving your encryption keys to a different folder. It takes one argument, newRoot, which defines your new root folder:

sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:change-key-storage-root /etc/oc-keys

You can see the current location of your keys folder:

sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:show-key-storage-root
Current key storage root:  default storage location (data/)

encryption:list-modules displays your available encryption modules. You will see a list of modules only if you have enabled the Encryption app. Use encryption:set-default-module [module name] to set your desired module.

encryption:encrypt-all encrypts all data files for all users. You must first put your Nextcloud server into single-user mode to prevent any user activity until encryption is completed.

encryption:decrypt-all decrypts all user data files, or optionally a single user:

sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:decrypt freda

Users must have enabled recovery keys on their Personal pages. You must first put your Nextcloud server into single-user mode to prevent any user activity until decryption is completed.

Use encryption:disable to disable your encryption module. You must first put your Nextcloud server into single-user mode to prevent any user activity.

encryption:enable-master-key creates a new master key, which is used for all user data instead of individual user keys. This is especially useful to enable single-sign on. Use this only on fresh installations with no existing data, or on systems where encryption has not already been enabled. It is not possible to disable it.

encryption:migrate migrates encryption keys after a major Nextcloud version upgrade. You may optionally specify individual users in a space-delimited list.

See Encryption Configuration to learn more.

Federation Sync

Note

This command is only available when the “Federation” app (federation) is enabled.

Synchronize the addressbooks of all federated Nextcloud servers:

federation:sync-addressbooks  Synchronizes addressbooks of all
                              federated clouds

In Nextcloud, servers connected with federation shares can share user address books, and auto-complete usernames in share dialogs. Use this command to synchronize federated servers:

sudo -u www-data php occ federation:sync-addressbooks

File Operations

occ has three commands for managing files in Nextcloud:

files
 files:cleanup              cleanup filecache
 files:scan                 rescan filesystem
 files:transfer-ownership   All files and folders are moved to another
                            user - shares are moved as well.

The files:scan command scans for new files and updates the file cache. You may rescan all files, per-user, a space-delimited list of users, and limit the search path. If not using --quiet, statistics will be shown at the end of the scan:

sudo -u www-data php occ files:scan --help
  Usage:
  files:scan [-p|--path="..."] [-q|--quiet] [-v|vv|vvv --verbose] [--all]
  [user_id1] ... [user_idN]

Arguments:
  user_id               will rescan all files of the given user(s)

Options:
  --path                limit rescan to the user/path given
  --all                 will rescan all files of all known users
  --quiet               suppress any output
  --verbose             files and directories being processed are shown
                        additionally during scanning

Verbosity levels of -vv or -vvv are automatically reset to -v

When using the --path option, the path must consist of following components:

"user_id/files/path"
  or
"user_id/files/mount_name"
  or
"user_id/files/mount_name/path"

where the term files is mandatory.

Example:

--path="/alice/files/Music"

In the example above, the user_id alice is determined implicitly from the path component given.

The --path, --all and [user_id] parameters and are exclusive - only one must be specified.

files:cleanup tidies up the server’s file cache by deleting all file entries that have no matching entries in the storage table.

You may transfer all files and shares from one user to another. This is useful before removing a user:

sudo -u www-data php occ files:transfer-ownership <source-user>
<destination-user>

Files External

Note

These commands are only available when the “External storage support” app (files_external) is enabled.

Commands for managing external storage:

files_external
 files_external:applicable  Manage applicable users and groups for a mount
 files_external:backends    Show available authentication and storage backends
 files_external:config      Manage backend configuration for a mount
 files_external:create      Create a new mount configuration
 files_external:delete      Delete an external mount
 files_external:export      Export mount configurations
 files_external:import      Import mount configurations
 files_external:list        List configured mounts
 files_external:option      Manage mount options for a mount
 files_external:verify      Verify mount configuration

These commands replicate the functionality in the Nextcloud Web GUI, plus two new features: files_external:export and files_external:import.

Use files_external:export to export all admin mounts to stdout, and files_external:export [user_id] to export the mounts of the specified Nextcloud user.

Use files_external:import [filename] to import legacy JSON configurations, and to copy external mount configurations to another Nextcloud server.

Integrity Check

Apps which have an official tag MUST be code signed with Nextcloud. Unsigned official apps won’t be installable anymore. Code signing is optional for all third-party applications:

integrity
 integrity:check-app                 Check app integrity using a signature.
 integrity:check-core                Check core integrity using a signature.
 integrity:sign-app                  Signs an app using a private key.
 integrity:sign-core                 Sign core using a private key

After creating your signing key, sign your app like this example:

sudo -u www-data php occ integrity:sign-app --privateKey=/Users/lukasreschke/contacts.key --certificate=/Users/lukasreschke/CA/contacts.crt --path=/Users/lukasreschke/Programming/contacts

Verify your app:

sudo -u www-data php occ integrity:check-app --path=/pathto/app appname

When it returns nothing, your app is signed correctly. When it returns a message then there is an error. See Code Signing in the Developer manual for more detailed information.

integrity:sign-core is for Nextcloud core developers only.

See Code Signing to learn more.

l10n, Create Javascript Translation Files for Apps

This command is for app developers to update their translation mechanism from ownCloud 7 to Nextcloud.

LDAP Commands

Note

These commands are only available when the “LDAP user and group backend” app (user_ldap) is enabled.

These LDAP commands appear only when you have enabled the LDAP app. Then you can run the following LDAP commands with occ:

ldap
 ldap:check-user               checks whether a user exists on LDAP.
 ldap:create-empty-config      creates an empty LDAP configuration
 ldap:delete-config            deletes an existing LDAP configuration
 ldap:search                   executes a user or group search
 ldap:set-config               modifies an LDAP configuration
 ldap:show-config              shows the LDAP configuration
 ldap:show-remnants            shows which users are not available on
                               LDAP anymore, but have remnants in
                               Nextcloud.
 ldap:test-config              tests an LDAP configuration

Search for an LDAP user, using this syntax:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:search [--group] [--offset="..."]
[--limit="..."] search

Searches will match at the beginning of the attribute value only. This example searches for givenNames that start with “rob”:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:search "rob"

This will find robbie, roberta, and robin. Broaden the search to find, for example, jeroboam with the asterisk wildcard:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:search "*rob"

User search attributes are set with ldap:set-config (below). For example, if your search attributes are givenName and sn you can find users by first name + last name very quickly. For example, you’ll find Terri Hanson by searching for te ha. Trailing whitespaces are ignored.

Check if an LDAP user exists. This works only if the Nextcloud server is connected to an LDAP server:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:check-user robert

ldap:check-user will not run a check when it finds a disabled LDAP connection. This prevents users that exist on disabled LDAP connections from being marked as deleted. If you know for certain that the user you are searching for is not in one of the disabled connections, and exists on an active connection, use the --force option to force it to check all active LDAP connections:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:check-user --force robert

ldap:create-empty-config creates an empty LDAP configuration. The first one you create has no configID, like this example:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:create-empty-config
  Created new configuration with configID ''

This is a holdover from the early days, when there was no option to create additional configurations. The second, and all subsequent, configurations that you create are automatically assigned IDs:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:create-empty-config
   Created new configuration with configID 's01'

Then you can list and view your configurations:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:show-config

And view the configuration for a single configID:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:show-config s01

ldap:delete-config [configID] deletes an existing LDAP configuration:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:delete  s01
Deleted configuration with configID 's01'

The ldap:set-config command is for manipulating configurations, like this example that sets search attributes:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:set-config s01 ldapAttributesForUserSearch
"cn;givenname;sn;displayname;mail"

ldap:test-config tests whether your configuration is correct and can bind to the server:

sudo -u www-data php occ ldap:test-config s01
The configuration is valid and the connection could be established!

ldap:show-remnants is for cleaning up the LDAP mappings table, and is documented in LDAP User Cleanup.

Logging Commands

These commands view and configure your Nextcloud logging preferences:

log
 log:manage     manage logging configuration
 log:owncloud   manipulate Nextcloud logging backend

Run log:owncloud to see your current logging status:

sudo -u www-data php occ log:owncloud
Log backend Nextcloud: enabled
Log file: /opt/nextcloud/data/nextcloud.log
Rotate at: disabled

Use the --enable option to turn on logging. Use --file to set a different log file path. Set your rotation by log file size in bytes with --rotate-size; 0 disables rotation.

log:manage sets your logging backend, log level, and timezone. The defaults are owncloud, Warning, and UTC. Available options are:

  • –backend [owncloud, syslog, errorlog]
  • –level [debug, info, warning, error]

Maintenance Commands

Use these commands when you upgrade Nextcloud, manage encryption, perform backups and other tasks that require locking users out until you are finished:

maintenance
 maintenance:mimetype:update-db       Update database mimetypes and update
                                      filecache
 maintenance:mimetype:update-js       Update mimetypelist.js
 maintenance:mode                     set maintenance mode
 maintenance:repair                   repair this installation
 maintenance:singleuser               set single user mode

maintenance:mode locks the sessions of all logged-in users, including administrators, and displays a status screen warning that the server is in maintenance mode. Users who are not already logged in cannot log in until maintenance mode is turned off. When you take the server out of maintenance mode logged-in users must refresh their Web browsers to continue working:

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --on
sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --off

Putting your Nextcloud server into single-user mode allows admins to log in and work, but not ordinary users. This is useful for performing maintenance and troubleshooting on a running server:

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:singleuser --on
Single user mode enabled

Turn it off when you’re finished:

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:singleuser --off
Single user mode disabled

The maintenance:repair command runs automatically during upgrades to clean up the database, so while you can run it manually there usually isn’t a need to:

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:repair

maintenance:mimetype:update-db updates the Nextcloud database and file cache with changed mimetypes found in config/mimetypemapping.json. Run this command after modifying config/mimetypemapping.json. If you change a mimetype, run maintenance:mimetype:update-db --repair-filecache to apply the change to existing files.

Security (Import SSL Certificates)

Use these commands to manage server-wide SSL certificates. These are useful when you create federation shares with other Nextcloud servers that use self-signed certificates:

security
 security:certificates         list trusted certificates
 security:certificates:import  import trusted certificate
 security:certificates:remove  remove trusted certificate

This example lists your installed certificates:

sudo -u www-data php occ security:certificates

Import a new certificate:

sudo -u www-data php occ security:import /path/to/certificate

Remove a certificate:

sudo -u www-data php occ security:remove [certificate name]

Shibboleth Modes (Enterprise Edition only)

Note

This command is only available when the “Shibboleth user backend” app (user_shibboleth) is enabled.

shibboleth:mode sets your Shibboleth mode to notactive, autoprovision, or ssoonly:

shibboleth:mode [mode]

Trashbin

Note

This command is only available when the “Deleted files” app (files_trashbin) is enabled.

The trashbin:cleanup command removes the deleted files of the specified users in a space-delimited list, or all users if none are specified.

trashbin
 trashbin:cleanup   Remove deleted files

This example removes the deleted files of all users:

sudo -u www-data php occ trashbin:cleanup
Remove all deleted files
Remove deleted files for users on backend Database
 freda
 molly
 stash
 rosa
 edward

This example removes the deleted files of users molly and freda:

sudo -u www-data php occ trashbin:cleanup molly freda
Remove deleted files of   molly
Remove deleted files of   freda

User Commands

The user commands create and remove users, reset passwords, display a simple report showing how many users you have, and when a user was last logged in:

user
 user:add            adds a user
 user:delete         deletes the specified user
 user:lastseen       shows when the user was logged it last
                     time
 user:report         shows how many users have access
 user:resetpassword  Resets the password of the named user

You can create a new user with their display name, login name, and any group memberships with the user:add command. The syntax is:

user:add [--password-from-env] [--display-name[="..."]] [-g|--group[="..."]]
uid

The display-name corresponds to the Full Name on the Users page in your Nextcloud Web UI, and the uid is their Username, which is their login name. This example adds new user Layla Smith, and adds her to the users and db-admins groups. Any groups that do not exist are created:

sudo -u www-data php occ user:add --display-name="Layla Smith"
  --group="users" --group="db-admins" layla
  Enter password:
  Confirm password:
  The user "layla" was created successfully
  Display name set to "Layla Smith"
  User "layla" added to group "users"
  User "layla" added to group "db-admins"

Go to your Users page, and you will see your new user.

password-from-env allows you to set the user’s password from an environment variable. This prevents the password from being exposed to all users via the process list, and will only be visible in the history of the user (root) running the command. This also permits creating scripts for adding multiple new users.

To use password-from-env you must run as “real” root, rather than sudo, because sudo strips environment variables. This example adds new user Fred Jones:

export OC_PASS=newpassword
su -s /bin/sh www-data -c 'php occ user:add --password-from-env
  --display-name="Fred Jones" --group="users" fred'
The user "fred" was created successfully
Display name set to "Fred Jones"
User "fred" added to group "users"

You can reset any user’s password, including administrators (see Resetting a Lost Admin Password):

sudo -u www-data php occ user:resetpassword layla
  Enter a new password:
  Confirm the new password:
  Successfully reset password for layla

You may also use password-from-env to reset passwords:

export OC_PASS=newpassword
su -s /bin/sh www-data -c 'php occ user:resetpassword --password-from-env
  layla'
  Successfully reset password for layla

You can delete users:

sudo -u www-data php occ user:delete fred

View a user’s most recent login:

sudo -u www-data php occ user:lastseen layla
  layla's last login: 09.01.2015 18:46

Generate a simple report that counts all users, including users on external user authentication servers such as LDAP:

sudo -u www-data php occ user:report
+------------------+----+
| User Report      |    |
+------------------+----+
| Database         | 12 |
| LDAP             | 86 |
|                  |    |
| total users      | 98 |
|                  |    |
| user directories | 2  |
+------------------+----+

Versions

Note

This command is only available when the “Versions” app (files_versions) is enabled.

Use this command to delete file versions for specific users, or for all users when none are specified:

versions
 versions:cleanup   Delete versions

This example deletes all versions for all users:

sudo -u www-data php occ versions:cleanup
Delete all versions
Delete versions for users on backend Database
  freda
  molly
  stash
  rosa
  edward

You can delete versions for specific users in a space-delimited list:

sudo -u www-data php occ versions:cleanup
Delete versions of   freda
Delete versions of   molly

Command Line Installation

These commands are available only after you have downloaded and unpacked the Nextcloud archive, and taken no further installation steps.

You can install Nextcloud entirely from the command line. After downloading the tarball and copying Nextcloud into the appropriate directories (See Manual Installation on Linux) you can use occ commands in place of running the graphical Installation Wizard.

Apply correct permissions to your Nextcloud directories; see Setting Strong Directory Permissions. Then choose your occ options. This lists your available options:

sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ
Nextcloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available
Nextcloud version 9.0.0

Usage:
 [options] command [arguments]

Options:
 --help (-h)           Display this help message
 --quiet (-q)          Do not output any message
 --verbose (-v|vv|vvv) Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
 output,  2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug
 --version (-V)        Display this application version
 --ansi                Force ANSI output
 --no-ansi             Disable ANSI output
 --no-interaction (-n) Do not ask any interactive question

Available commands:
 check                 check dependencies of the server environment
 help                  Displays help for a command
 list                  Lists commands
 status                show some status information
 app
 app:check-code        check code to be compliant
 l10n
 l10n:createjs         Create javascript translation files for a given app
 maintenance
 maintenance:install   install Nextcloud

Display your maintenance:install options:

sudo -u www-data php occ help maintenance:install
Nextcloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available
Usage:
 maintenance:install [--database="..."] [--database-name="..."]
[--database-host="..."] [--database-user="..."] [--database-pass[="..."]]
[--database-table-prefix[="..."]] [--admin-user="..."] [--admin-pass="..."]
[--data-dir="..."]

Options:
 --database               Supported database type (default: "sqlite")
 --database-name          Name of the database
 --database-host          Hostname of the database (default: "localhost")
 --database-user          User name to connect to the database
 --database-pass          Password of the database user
 --database-table-prefix  Prefix for all tables (default: oc_)
 --admin-user             User name of the admin account (default: "admin")
 --admin-pass             Password of the admin account
 --data-dir               Path to data directory (default:
                          "/var/www/nextcloud/data")
 --help (-h)              Display this help message
 --quiet (-q)             Do not output any message
 --verbose (-v|vv|vvv)    Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
  output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug
 --version (-V)           Display this application version
 --ansi                   Force ANSI output
 --no-ansi                Disable ANSI output
 --no-interaction (-n)    Do not ask any interactive question

This example completes the installation:

cd /var/www/nextcloud/
sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:install --database
"mysql" --database-name "nextcloud"  --database-user "root" --database-pass
"password" --admin-user "admin" --admin-pass "password"
Nextcloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available
Nextcloud was successfully installed

Supported databases are:

- sqlite (SQLite3 - Nextcloud Community edition only)
- mysql (MySQL/MariaDB)
- pgsql (PostgreSQL)
- oci (Oracle - Nextcloud Enterprise edition only)

Command Line Upgrade

These commands are available only after you have downloaded upgraded packages or tar archives, and before you complete the upgrade.

List all options, like this example on CentOS Linux:

sudo -u apache php occ upgrade -h
Usage:
upgrade [--skip-migration-test] [--dry-run] [--no-app-disable]

Options:
--skip-migration-test  skips the database schema migration simulation and
   update directly
--dry-run              only runs the database schema migration simulation, do
  not actually update
--no-app-disable       skips the disable of third party apps
--help (-h)            Display this help message.
--quiet (-q)           Do not output any message.
--verbose (-v|vv|vvv)  Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal output,
  2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug.
--version (-V)         Display this application version.
--ansi                 Force ANSI output.
--no-ansi              Disable ANSI output.
--no-interaction (-n)  Do not ask any interactive question

When you are performing an update or upgrade on your Nextcloud server (see the Maintenance section of this manual), it is better to use occ to perform the database upgrade step, rather than the Web GUI, in order to avoid timeouts. PHP scripts invoked from the Web interface are limited to 3600 seconds. In larger environments this may not be enough, leaving the system in an inconsistent state. After performing all the preliminary steps (see How to Upgrade Your Nextcloud Server) use this command to upgrade your databases, like this example on CentOS Linux. Note how it details the steps:

sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade
Nextcloud or one of the apps require upgrade - only a limited number of
commands are available
Turned on maintenance mode
Checked database schema update
Checked database schema update for apps
Updated database
Updating <gallery> ...
Updated <gallery> to 0.6.1
Updating <activity> ...
Updated <activity> to 2.1.0
Update successful
Turned off maintenance mode

Enabling verbosity displays timestamps:

sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade -v
Nextcloud or one of the apps require upgrade - only a limited number of commands are available
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Turned on maintenance mode
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Checked database schema update
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Checked database schema update for apps
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Updated database
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Updated <files_sharing> to 0.6.6
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Update successful
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Turned off maintenance mode

If there is an error it throws an exception, and the error is detailed in your Nextcloud logfile, so you can use the log output to figure out what went wrong, or to use in a bug report:

Turned on maintenance mode
Checked database schema update
Checked database schema update for apps
Updated database
Updating <files_sharing> ...
Exception
ServerNotAvailableException: LDAP server is not available
Update failed
Turned off maintenance mode

Before completing the upgrade, Nextcloud first runs a simulation by copying all database tables to new tables, and then performs the upgrade on them, to ensure that the upgrade will complete correctly. The copied tables are deleted after the upgrade. This takes twice as much time, which on large installations can be many hours, so you can omit this step with the --skip-migration-test option:

sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade --skip-migration-test

You can perform this simulation manually with the --dry-run option:

sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade --dry-run