Server tuning

Using cron to perform background jobs

See Background jobs for a description and the benefits.

Reducing system load

High system load will slow down Nextcloud and might also lead to other unwanted side effects. To reduce load you should first identify the source of the problem. Tools such as htop, iotop, netdata or glances will help to identify the process or the drive that slows down your system. First you should make sure that you installed/assigned enough RAM. Swap usage should be prevented by all means. If you run your database inside a VM, you should not store it inside a VM image file. Better put it on a dedicated block device to reduce latency due to multiple abstraction layers.

Caching

Caching improves performance by storing data, code, and other objects in memory. Memory cache configuration for the Nextcloud server must be installed and configured. See Memory caching.

Using MariaDB/MySQL instead of SQLite

MySQL or MariaDB are preferred because of the performance limitations of SQLite with highly concurrent applications, like Nextcloud.

See the section Database configuration for how to configure Nextcloud for MySQL or MariaDB. If your installation is already running on SQLite then it is possible to convert to MySQL or MariaDB using the steps provided in Converting database type.

For more details and help tuning your database, check this article at MariaDB.

Using Redis-based transactional file locking

File locking is enabled by default, using the database locking backend. This places a significant load on your database. See the section Transactional file locking for how to configure Nextcloud to use Redis-based Transactional File Locking.

TLS / encryption app

TLS (HTTPS) and file encryption/decryption can be offloaded to a processor’s AES-NI extension. This can both speed up these operations while lowering processing overhead. This requires a processor with the AES-NI instruction set.

Here are some examples how to check if your CPU / environment supports the AES-NI extension:

  • For each CPU core present: grep flags /proc/cpuinfo or as a summary for all cores: grep -m 1 '^flags' /proc/cpuinfo If the result contains any aes, the extension is present.

  • Search eg. on the Intel web if the processor used supports the extension Intel Processor Feature Filter You may set a filter by "AES New Instructions" to get a reduced result set.

  • For versions of openssl >= 1.0.1, AES-NI does not work via an engine and will not show up in the openssl engine command. It is active by default on the supported hardware. You can check the openssl version via openssl version -a

  • If your processor supports AES-NI but it does not show up eg via grep or coreinfo, it is maybe disabled in the BIOS.

  • If your environment runs virtualized, check the virtualization vendor for support.

Enable HTTP/2 for faster loading

HTTP/2 has huge speed improvements over HTTP with multiple request. Most browsers already support HTTP/2 over TLS (HTTPS). Refer to your web server manual for guides on how to enable HTTP/2.

Tune PHP-FPM

If you are using a default installation of PHP-FPM you might have noticed excessive load times on the web interface or even sync issues. This is due to the fact that each simultaneous request of an element is handled by a separate PHP-FPM process. So even on a small installation you should allow more processes to run in parallel to handle the requests.

This link can help you calculate the good values for your system.

Enable PHP OPcache

The OPcache improves the performance of PHP applications by caching precompiled bytecode. The default OPcache settings are usually sufficient for Nextcloud code to be fully cached. If any cache size limit is reached by more than 90%, the admin panel will show a related warning. Nextcloud strictly requires code comments to be preserved in opcode, which is the default. But in case PHP settings are changed on your system, you may need set the following:

opcache.save_comments = 1

By default, cached scripts are revalidated on access to ensure that changes on disk take effect after at most 2 seconds. Since Nextcloud handles cache revalidation internally when required, the revalidation frequency can be reduced or completely disabled to enhance performance. Note, however, that it affects manual changes to scripts, including config.php. To check for changes at most every 60 seconds, use the following setting:

opcache.revalidate_freq = 60

To disable the revalidation completely:

opcache.validate_timestamps = 0

Any change to config.php will then require either restarting PHP, manually clearing the cache, or invalidating this particular script.

For more details check out the official documentation. To monitor OPcache usage, clear individual or all cache entries, opcache-gui can be used.

Previews

It is possible to speed up preview generation using an external microservice: Imaginary.

To do so, you will need to deploy the service and make sure that it is not accessible from outside of your servers. Then you can configure Nextcloud to use Imaginary by editing your config.php:

<?php
'enabledPreviewProviders' => [
    'OC\Preview\MP3',
    'OC\Preview\TXT',
    'OC\Preview\MarkDown',
    'OC\Preview\OpenDocument',
    'OC\Preview\Krita',
    'OC\Preview\Imaginary',
],
'preview_imaginary_url' => 'http://<url of imaginary>',

Note

For large instance, you should follow Imaginary’s scalability recommandation <https://github.com/h2non/imaginary#scalability>.